浅谈SpringCloud实现简单的微服务架构

转载  2018-01-10   作者:lynnlovemin   我要评论
Spring Cloud是一系列框架的有序集合,本文就使用SpringCloud实现一套简单的微服务架构,具有一定的参考价值,感兴趣的小伙伴们可以参考一下
Spring Cloud是一系列框架的有序集合。它利用Spring Boot的开发便利性巧妙地简化了分布式系统基础设施的开发,如服务发现注册、配置中心、消息总线、负载均衡、断路器、数据监控等,都可以用Spring Boot的开发风格做到一键启动和部署。Spring并没有重复制造轮子,它只是将目前各家公司开发的比较成熟、经得起实际考验的服务框架组合起来,通过Spring Boot风格进行再封装屏蔽掉了复杂的配置和实现原理,最终给开发者留出了一套简单易懂、易部署和易维护的分布式系统开发工具包。
接下来我们就使用SpringCloud实现一套简单的微服务架构。
以下所有代码都已开源到github上了,地址:https://github.com/lynnlovemin/softservice
Eureka(服务注册与发现) 首先引入相关的依赖包
<parent> <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId> <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId> <version>1.5.9.RELEASE</version> <relativePath/> <!-- lookup parent from repository --> </parent> <properties> <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding> <project.reporting.outputEncoding>UTF-8</project.reporting.outputEncoding> <java.version>1.8</java.version> </properties> <dependencies> <dependency> <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId> <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-eureka</artifactId> </dependency> <dependency> <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId> <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-eureka-server</artifactId> </dependency> <dependency> <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId> <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId> </dependency> <dependency> <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId> <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId> <scope>test</scope> </dependency> </dependencies> <dependencyManagement> <dependencies> <dependency> <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId> <artifactId>spring-cloud-dependencies</artifactId> <version>Dalston.RC1</version> <type>pom</type> <scope>import</scope> </dependency> </dependencies> </dependencyManagement> <build> <plugins> <plugin> <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId> <artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId> </plugin> </plugins> </build> <repositories> <repository> <id>spring-milestones</id> <name>Spring Milestones</name> <url>https://repo.spring.io/milestone</url> <snapshots> <enabled>false</enabled> </snapshots> </repository> </repositories>
配置application.yml
server: port: 8761 eureka: instance: hostname: localhost client: registerWithEureka: false fetchRegistry: false serviceUrl: defaultZone: http://${eureka.instance.hostname}:${server.port}/eureka/
创建启动类Application
@EnableEurekaServer @SpringBootApplication public class Application { public static void main(String[] args) { SpringApplication.run(Application.class, args); } }
运行main方法,浏览器访问:http://localhost:8761,我们就能在浏览器看到如下界面:

说明eureka启动成功。
接下来,我们实现负债均衡、断路器、网关、客户端,所有的服务都应该注册到eureka中,并且访问eureka就能看到所有注册的服务 client(客户端) pom.xml
<parent> <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId> <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId> <version>1.5.9.RELEASE</version> <relativePath/> <!-- lookup parent from repository --> </parent> <properties> <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding> <project.reporting.outputEncoding>UTF-8</project.reporting.outputEncoding> <java.version>1.8</java.version> </properties> <dependencies> <dependency> <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId> <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-eureka</artifactId> </dependency> <dependency> <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId> <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId> </dependency> <dependency> <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId> <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId> <scope>test</scope> </dependency> </dependencies> <dependencyManagement> <dependencies> <dependency> <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId> <artifactId>spring-cloud-dependencies</artifactId> <version>Dalston.RC1</version> <type>pom</type> <scope>import</scope> </dependency> </dependencies> </dependencyManagement> <build> <plugins> <plugin> <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId> <artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId> </plugin> </plugins> </build> <repositories> <repository> <id>spring-milestones</id> <name>Spring Milestones</name> <url>https://repo.spring.io/milestone</url> <snapshots> <enabled>false</enabled> </snapshots> </repository> </repositories>
application.yml
eureka: client: serviceUrl: defaultZone: http://localhost:8761/eureka/ #这里注册到eureka中 server: port: 8763 spring: application: name: service-hi
Application类
@SpringBootApplication @EnableEurekaClient @RestController public class Application { public static void main(String[] args) { SpringApplication.run(Applicatioin.class, args); } @Value("${server.port}") String port; //这里我们提供一个接口 @RequestMapping("/hi") public String home(@RequestParam String name) { return "hi "+name+",i am from port:" +port; } }
Feign(负债均衡、断路器) pom.xml
<parent> <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId> <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId> <version>1.5.9.RELEASE</version> <relativePath/> <!-- lookup parent from repository --> </parent> <properties> <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding> <project.reporting.outputEncoding>UTF-8</project.reporting.outputEncoding> <java.version>1.8</java.version> </properties> <dependencies> <dependency> <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId> <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-eureka</artifactId> </dependency> <dependency> <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId> <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId> </dependency> <dependency> <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId> <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-feign</artifactId> </dependency> <dependency> <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId> <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-actuator</artifactId> </dependency> <dependency> <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId> <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-hystrix-dashboard</artifactId> </dependency> <dependency> <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId> <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId> <scope>test</scope> </dependency> </dependencies> <dependencyManagement> <dependencies> <dependency> <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId> <artifactId>spring-cloud-dependencies</artifactId> <version>Dalston.RC1</version> <type>pom</type> <scope>import</scope> </dependency> </dependencies> </dependencyManagement> <build> <plugins> <plugin> <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId> <artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId> </plugin> </plugins> </build> <repositories> <repository> <id>spring-milestones</id> <name>Spring Milestones</name> <url>https://repo.spring.io/milestone</url> <snapshots> <enabled>false</enabled> </snapshots> </repository> </repositories>
application.yml
eureka: client: serviceUrl: defaultZone: http://localhost:8761/eureka/ server: port: 8765 spring: application: name: service-feign feign: hystrix: enabled: true
Application类
@SpringBootApplication @EnableDiscoveryClient @EnableFeignClients @EnableHystrixDashboard public class Application { public static void main(String[] args) { SpringApplication.run(Application.class, args); } }
然后再提供一个service,他的作用就是做负债均衡和断路器功能
@FeignClient(value = "service-hi",fallback = SchedualServiceHiHystric.class) public interface SchedualServiceHi { @RequestMapping(value = "/hi",method = RequestMethod.GET) String sayHiFromClientOne(@RequestParam(value = "name") String name); }
@Component public class SchedualServiceHiHystric implements SchedualServiceHi { @Override public String sayHiFromClientOne(String name) { return "sorry "+name; } }
FeignClient我们指定之前创建client时指定的name:service-hi,fallback指定服务不可用时的返回数据,这样我们启动多个client时就可以看到http请求时会交替访问不同的feign端口,当停掉clien时再访问接口会返回错误信息。 zuul(服务网关) 在一般情况下,我们不会直接暴露客户端给外部,而是通过服务网关来转发,内部服务都是在局域网内通信,外部访问不了,通过服务网关,我们还可以统一做接口的安全性校验,统一拦截,请看代码:
pom.xml
<parent> <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId> <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId> <version>1.5.9.RELEASE</version> <relativePath/> <!-- lookup parent from repository --> </parent> <properties> <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding> <project.reporting.outputEncoding>UTF-8</project.reporting.outputEncoding> <java.version>1.8</java.version> </properties> <dependencies> <dependency> <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId> <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-eureka</artifactId> </dependency> <dependency> <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId> <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId> </dependency> <dependency> <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId> <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-zuul</artifactId> </dependency> <dependency> <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId> <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId> <scope>test</scope> </dependency> </dependencies> <dependencyManagement> <dependencies> <dependency> <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId> <artifactId>spring-cloud-dependencies</artifactId> <version>Dalston.RC1</version> <type>pom</type> <scope>import</scope> </dependency> </dependencies> </dependencyManagement> <build> <plugins> <plugin> <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId> <artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId> </plugin> </plugins> </build> <repositories> <repository> <id>spring-milestones</id> <name>Spring Milestones</name> <url>https://repo.spring.io/milestone</url> <snapshots> <enabled>false</enabled> </snapshots> </repository>
application.yml
eureka: client: serviceUrl: defaultZone: http://localhost:8761/eureka/ server: port: 8080 spring: application: name: service-zuul zuul: routes: api-b: path: /api/** serviceId: service-feign #凡是以api开始的请求都访问service-feign服务
Application类
@EnableZuulProxy @EnableEurekaClient @SpringBootApplication public class Application { public static void main(String[] args) { SpringApplication.run(Application.class, args); } }
启动Application,访问:http://localhost:8080/api/hi,就能访问到之前我们定义的接口,接下来我们做接口的拦截:
/** * filterType:返回一个字符串代表过滤器的类型,在zuul中定义了四种不同生命周期的过滤器类型,具体如下: pre:路由之前 routing:路由之时 post: 路由之后 error:发送错误调用 filterOrder:过滤的顺序 shouldFilter:这里可以写逻辑判断,是否要过滤,本文true,永远过滤。 run:过滤器的具体逻辑。可用很复杂,包括查sql,nosql去判断该请求到底有没有权限访问。 */ @Component public class MyFilter extends ZuulFilter{ private static Logger log = LoggerFactory.getLogger(MyFilter.class); @Override public String filterType() { return "pre"; } @Override public int filterOrder() { return 0; } @Override public boolean shouldFilter() { return true; } @Override public Object run() { RequestContext ctx = RequestContext.getCurrentContext(); HttpServletRequest request = ctx.getRequest(); log.info(String.format("%s >>> %s", request.getMethod(), request.getRequestURL().toString())); Object accessToken = request.getParameter("token"); if(accessToken == null) { log.warn("token is empty"); ctx.setSendZuulResponse(false); ctx.setResponseStatusCode(401); try { ctx.getResponse().getWriter().write("token is empty"); }catch (Exception e){} return null; } log.info("ok"); return null; } }
这样我们在调用接口前会先执行MyFilter类中的run方法,在这个方法里可以做一系列安全验证,比如token。
好了,一个简单的微服务架构就已经搭建完成了。
以上所有代码都已开源到github上了,地址:https://github.com/lynnlovemin/softservice
以上所述是小编给大家介绍的SpringCloud实现简单的微服务架构,希望对大家有所帮助,如果大家有任何疑问请给我留言,小编会及时回复

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